From inside the a beneficial multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled demonstration, 672 suit males (imply age of 61

8 years) was indeed randomized so you can daily calcium supplements (1,200 milligrams) for couple of years. When you are no escalation in the risk for prostate cancer has been claimed during the a good ten.step 3-seasons pursue-upwards, calcium supplements supplementation triggered a critical chance losing that point comprising regarding a couple of years immediately following treatment arrived at 2 yrs shortly after therapy ended (150). Into the a peek at this new literature wrote in ’09, the us Department having Health care Look and you can Top quality revealed that not all the epidemiological studies discover a link ranging from calcium consumption and you may prostate cancer tumors (151). The fresh new comment reported that 6 out of eleven observational studies hit a brick wall to acquire statistically significant confident connectivity anywhere between prostate disease and you may calcium intake. Yet ,, for the four degree, each and every day intakes off 921 so you’re able to 2,100000 milligrams away from calcium supplements was indeed seen to be on the an enthusiastic improved threat of developing prostate malignant tumors when compared with intakes starting away from 455 to a single,000 milligrams/go out (151). Inconsistencies among degree highly recommend complex relationships between the risk issues getting prostate cancers, plus echo the issues regarding assessing the end result away from calcium intake during the 100 % free-living anybody. Such as, the point that people with higher dairy and/or calcium consumption was in fact discovered to be likely to end up being involved with match life-style or higher browsing look for medical help can decrease the newest mathematical dependence on a connection with prostate cancer tumors chance (152).

Do calcium supplements boost the exposure to have heart disease?

Multiple observational degree and you may randomized managed examples have raised questions regarding the possibility adverse effects regarding calcium supplements into cardio chance. The research of information on the Kuopio Weakening of bones Exposure Basis and you will Prevention (OSTPRE) prospective study found that profiles of calcium supplements between ten,555 Finnish ladies (many years 52-62 decades) got a great 14% higher risk of making coronary artery condition versus non-enhance users throughout a hateful realize-upwards from 6.75 age (153). The goal study of 23,980 professionals (35-64 years old) of your own Heidelberg cohort of the Eu Potential Research to your Malignant tumors and Nourishment cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) noticed one to supplemental calcium intake is actually surely from the exposure regarding myocardial infarction (heart attack) not towards the threat of heart attack or cardiovascular disease (CVD)-relevant mortality immediately after a hateful go after-up out-of eleven age (154). Yet, the application of calcium supplements (?eight hundred milligrams/date versus. 0 milligrams/day) is actually of this a greater chance of CVD-associated death when you look at the 219,059 men, but not inside the 169,170 ladies, as part of the National Institute out of Fitness (NIH)-AARP Diet and Fitness study and you can accompanied for a suggest months of twelve years. CVD death within the boys has also been seen to be significantly large which have total (slimming down along with extra) calcium supplements intakes of 1,five hundred milligrams/date and over (155).

Until the relationships ranging from calcium and you will prostate malignant tumors was explained, it is reasonable for males to consume all in all, step 1,100 to a single,two hundred milligrams/day of calcium (diet and medications mutual), which is recommended by the As well as Nutrients Board of your Institute out of Medication (get a hold of RDA) (9)

In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial – the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study – in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).